Genetics



Genetics is the study of heredity. It is appropriately regarded as the science that explains the similarities and differences among the related organisms.

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For many centuries, it was customary to explain inheritance in humans through blood theory .People used to believe that the children received blood from their parents ,and it was the union of blood that led to the blending of  characteristics .That is how the terms ‘blood relations’ ,’blood will tell’, and ‘blood is thicker than water’ came into existence .They are still used despite the fact that blood is no more involved in inheritance. With the advancements in genetics, the more appropriate terms should be as follows

·         Gene relations in place of blood relations. Genes will tell instead of blood will tell.

Genetic diseases in humans: The pattern of inheritance and monogenic traits along with some of the associated disorders are described above .Besides gene mutations, chromosomal abnormalities also result in genetic diseases.
Aneuploidy: the presence of abnormal number of chromosomes within the cells is referred to as aneuploidy .The most common aneuploid condition is trisomy in which copies of a particular chromosome are present in a cell instead of two.

Eugenics: Eugenics is the science of improving human race based on genetics. Improving the traits of plants and animals through breeding programmes has been in practice for centuries. Eugenics is a highly controversial subject due to social, ethical, and political reasons. The proponents of eugenics argue that people with desirable and good traits (good blood) should reproduce while those with undesirable characters (bad blood) should not. The advocates of eugenics, however, do not force any policy, but they try to convince the people to perform their duty voluntarily. The object of eugenics is to limit the production of people who are unfit to live in the society.

Eugenics in Nazi Germany: Germany developed its own eugenic program during 1930’s .A law on eugenic sterilization was passed in 1933.In a span of three years, compulsory sterilization was done on about 250,000 people who allegedly suffered from hereditary disabilities ,feeble mindedness, epilepsy, schizophrenia, blindness, physical deformities ,and drug or alcohol addiction. The German Government committed many atrocities in the name of racial purity. Other countries, however do not support this kind of eugenics.

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